Bring a big pot of water with salt to a boil. Add the dry pasta and cook for 15 or so minutes till the penne is al dente (cooked through but firm to the bite). Drain and set aside.
While the pasta is cooking, heat oil in a medium skillet, add minced garlic, ginger, green chilies, salt and ground peppercorns. Sauté for a minute. Now add the peppers and carrots, sauté till the peppers have softened and carrots are cooked but firm to bite. Toss the vegetables with the cooked pasta.
Heat oil in a small skillet till hot to touch, add mustard seeds. After the seeds, crackle, add urad dal and roast till golden brown. Add asafoetida and red chilies. Stir. Switch off the flame. Add curry leaves. The curry leaves will burst as the oil touches the leaves. Add the peanuts and toss to combine.
Spoon the pasta into a big serving bowl and garnish with the tempering.
Storage: The recipe makes for 8 servings. You can reduce it or make the entire recipe for the next day. It keeps well in the refrigerator for a week in an airtight container.
Leftovers: These are yummy leftovers for lunch the next day. And taste so good when cold or at room temperature too.